Did you know there are over 100 different types of cancer, yet only a handful account for up to 75% of all diagnosed cases? Following is a list of the most common types of cancer, in no particular order, along with their early warning signs and risk factors. Protect yourself and your loved ones by being aware of the symptoms so the disease can be caught and treated in the early stages.
Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma is not one disease, but rather a set of diseases involving the lymphocytes, or
white blood cells within the lymphatic system. Lymphatic organs include the lymph nodes, bone marrow, thymus gland and spleen. Symptoms include:
Risk factors include: gender (males are at higher risk), infections such as H. pylori and Epstein Barr, impaired immune function, and age, with certain types occurring more commonly in young adults, and other types occurring more frequently in those over 55.
Leukemia is group of blood cancers that initiate in the bone marrow. There are four types of
leukemia including two chronic types and two acute types: chronic lymphocytic and chronic myeloid leukemia, and acute lymphoblastic and acute myeloid leukemia. Symptoms include:
Swollen lymph nodes
Enlarged spleen or liver
Increased risk of
Associated risk factors include: a family history of leukemia, inherited
immune system conditions, exposure to chemotherapy, radiation and chemicals such as benzene, smoking and alcohol consumption, excessive sun exposure, obesity, and genetic syndromes like Down Syndrome.
3. Pancreatic Cancer
Pancreatic cancer, a particularly deadly type of cancer, often remains undetected until the disease is in the advanced stages. In the beginning stages, pancreatic cancer is painless, with symptoms becoming noticeable once the cancer has become
metastatic, making it difficult to treat. Symptoms include:
A dull ache in the abdomen
Pain in the back
Nausea and vomiting
Risk factors that increase the chances of developing pancreatic cancer include: age (risk goes up with age), ethnicity (African Americans and Ashkenazi Jews are at higher risk), smoking, a diet rich in fatty food, a family history of pancreatic cancer, diabetes, and gender, with more men being diagnosed with the disease than women.
4. Colorectal Cancer
Cancer of the colon, or large intestine, is one of the most common types of
cancer in both men and women. It has a good prognosis if diagnosed and treated in the early stages. Early warning signs to be aware of include:
Pain in the abdomen
Cramping and bloating
Blood in the stool
Diarrhea and constipation
Risk factors for the disease include: obesity, a family history of colorectal cancer, a
sedentary lifestyle, a diet high in processed meat, regular alcohol consumption, and age, with the majority of colon cancers occurring after age 50. It can however, occur in younger people, including teenagers. The American Cancer Society recommends regular screening beginning at age 45 for those at average risk for colon cancer. Screening includes stool-based tests and visual exams.
5. Lung Cancer
There are two primary categories of lung cancer, non-small cell and small-cell. Non-small cell
lung cancer is the most common form, and accounts for up to 85% of all cases. Sadly, over half of all cases of diagnosed lung cancer, are already in the advanced stages. Symptoms include:
Shortness of breath
Wheezing and hoarseness
Coughing up blood
Pain (advanced lung cancer)
Recurrent infections, such as pneumonia and bronchitis
Risk factors include: smoking, exposure to second-hand smoke, age (older people are at higher risk), exposure to radon gas, asbestos, radiation, and other
carcinogenic compounds, a family history of lung cancer, genetics, and pollution.
6. Breast Cancer
There are two types of
breast cancer, non-invasive and invasive, with the latter type potentially being life-threatening. Infiltrating ductal carcinoma and infiltrating lobular carcinoma are the two main types of invasive breast cancer. There are different receptor types that determine treatment. These are estrogen receptor positive (ER+), estrogen receptor negative (ER-), progesterone receptor positive (PR+), HER2-positive (HER2+), and triple negative (ER-) (PR-) (HER2-). Signs to look for include:
Changes in breast size or shape
Nipple discharge or inversion
Persistent pain in one area
Scaly patches of skin
Redness or swelling
Darkening of the breast
Areas of warmth
Skin dimpling or puckering
10 Facts About Breast Cancer Every Woman Needs To Know]
The chances of developing breast cancer increases with the following risk factors: obesity, a sedentary lifestyle, gender (females are at higher risk), smoking and alcohol consumption, exposure to ionizing radiation, a family history of breast cancer, never having breastfed a baby, menstruation beginning before age 12, never becoming pregnant, bearing a child at an older age, and having a
7. Cervical Cancer
Most cervical cancers are caused by the HPV, or human papillomavirus.
HPV is common and can be transmitted during sex. The virus doesn’t cause any symptom, and the majority of the time will resolve on its own. However, it may affect cervical changes that over time can become cancerous. Symptoms include:
Bleeding after intercourse
Risk factors that increase the chances of developing cervical cancer include: smoking, impaired
immunity, prolonged birth control use (over five years), multiple sexual partners, and having three or more pregnancies. Regular pap smears can reduce your risk.
8. Prostate Cancer
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men, particularly those over 65. Fortunately, it is rare in men under 40, and many times is slow-growing and confined to the gland itself. Other types can be more aggressive, spreading beyond the prostate, which can be successfully treated if detected early. The prostate sits below the bladder, which explains symptoms such as difficulty urinating. Symptoms include:
Low back pain
Pelvic pain or discomfort
Difficulty passing urine
Blood in the semen
Risk factors for prostate cancer include: age, a family history of the disease, obesity, and race, with African Americans being at greater risk of developing the aggressive form of prostate cancer. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), bacterial prostatitis, chronic
inflammation of the prostate, and acute or chronic infections also play into risk. Prostate cancer is the third leading cause of death in men in the United States, following colon and lung cancer.
9. Bladder Cancer
The most common type of
bladder cancer develops in the urothelial cells that line the bladder. If diagnosed before it has spread, bladder cancer can be effectively treated. Symptoms include:
Blood in the urine
Urinary urgency and frequency
An inability to urinate
Pain in the pelvic region
Urinary tract infections
The risk of developing bladder cancer can be up to seven times higher if a person smokes cigarettes, pipes, or cigars. Exposure to carcinogenic
chemicals (arsenic) also increases risk, as do chronic bladder problems, such as infections and stones, and age, with up to 70% of those with bladder cancer being over 65. Caucasians are twice as likely to be diagnosed with this type of cancer, as are African Americans, yet the latter group are two times as likely to die of the disease. Squamous cell bladder cancer is associated with the parasitic infection, schistosomiasis.
10. Esophageal Cancer
Esophageal cancer develops in the inner layer of the esophagus, the tube which connects the throat to the stomach. Adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are the two main types of esophageal cancer. In the initial stages of the disease, there may be an absence of symptoms. Symptoms arise as the
cancer progresses including:
Coughing and hoarseness
Pain behind the breastbone
Unexplained weight loss
Risk factors include: tobacco and alcohol use, smoking, GERD, and Barrett’s esophagus, a complication of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), which increases the chances of developing esophageal adenocarcinoma. Early detection of Barrett’s esophagus is crucial to reduce
11. Liver Cancer
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), or liver cancer, is the most common cancer worldwide, with the primary risk factor being chronic hepatitis, a viral infection of the liver. Both hepatitis and cirrhosis, or scarring of the liver, increase the odds of developing liver cancer. This risk significantly increases with heavy
Swelling of the abdomen
Unexplained weight loss
Vomiting and nausea
Risk factors for liver cancer include: nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), excessive alcohol use, diabetes, aflatoxin exposure, and chronic infections, such as hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV), which lead to liver cirrhosis. Liver cancer is more common in men than woman, but may be due to behaviors that increase risk. A sub type of liver cancer, fibrolamellar, is more common in women. Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders are at the highest risk in the United States. Age increases risk, with those over 50 being the most likely to develop the disease.
Can Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Be Reversed?]
12. Stomach Cancer
Stomach cancer commonly starts in the mucus-producing cells that line the stomach. Signs that signal the presence of cancer may not be apparent in the initial stages, with symptoms being mistaken for the flu. Because of this the cancer may not be detected until it’s advanced and aggressive. Symptoms include:
Pain in the stomach
Nausea and vomiting
A feeling of fullness after eating
Gastric adenocarcinoma accounts for up to 95% of all cases of stomach cancer. There are two types: intestinal type, which is found in the lower areas of the stomach, and diffuse type, an aggressive form of stomach cancer. Risk factors for stomach cancer include: obesity, smoking, gender (male), chemical exposure, A blood type, having had stomach surgery, an active H. Pylori infection, and poor
dietary habits, such as eating smoked and preserved foods. Gastric polyps, pernicious anemia, and atrophic gastritis also increase risk.
Knowing the signs and symptoms of the most common types of cancer is important for reducing your risk. Treatment success is much brighter when the disease is diagnosed in the
early stages, while the prognosis is still favorable. If you experience any new symptoms, get them checked out as soon as possible.
Did you know these types of
cancer were the most common? Let me know in the comments:)
(1) Mayo Clinic: Lymphoma
(2) Cancer Treatment Centers of America: Leukemia
(3) American Cancer Society: Risk Factors for Childhood Leukemia
(4) WebMD: Pancreatic Cancer Symptoms
(5) Cancer.net: Pancreatic Cancer: Risk Factors
(6) Breastcancer.org: Hormone Receptor Status
(7) CDC: What Are the Risk Factors for Cervical Cancer?
(8) U.S. National Library of Medicine: Prostate Cancer
(9) Mayo Clinic: Prostate Cancer
(10) WebMD: What Are the Symptoms of Bladder Cancer?
(11) Cancer.Net: Bladder Cancer: Risk Factors
(12) Medtronic: Barrett’s Esophagus
(13) Cancer Quest: Liver Cancer
(14) Cancer treatment Centers of America: Stomach Cancer
(15) City of Hope: Stomach (Gastric) Cancer
(16) MedicineNet: Prostate Cancer
(17) American Cancer Society: American Cancer Society Guideline for Colorectal Cancer Screening